Text Viewing

more <my_file>  # views text, use space bar to browse, hit 'q' to exit
less <my_file>  # a more versatile text viewer than 'more', 'q' exits, 'G' moves to end of text,
                # 'g' to beginning, '/' find forward, '?' find backwards
cat  <my_file>  # concatenates files and prints content to standard output

Text Editors

  • Vi and Vim
    • Non-graphical (terminal-based) editor. Vi is guaranteed to be available on any system. Vim is the improved version of vi.
  • Emacs
    • Non-graphical or window-based editor. You still need to know keystroke commands to use it. Installed on all Linux distributions and on most other Unix systems.
  • XEmacs
    • More sophisticated version of emacs, but usually not installed by default. All common commands are available from menus. Very powerful editor, with built-in syntax checking, Web-browsing, news-reading, manual-page browsing, etc.
  • Pico
    • Simple terminal-based editor available on most versions of Unix. Uses keystroke commands, but they are listed in logical fashion at bottom of screen.
  • Nano
    • A simple terminal-based editor which is default on modern Debian systems.

The Unix Shell

When you log into UNIX/LINUX system, then is starts a program called the Shell. It provides you with a working environment and interface to the operating system. Usually there are several different shell programs installed. The shell program bash is one of the most common ones.

finger <user_name> # shows which shell you are using
chsh -l # gives list of shell programs available on your system (does not work on all UNIX variants)
<shell_name> # switches to different shell

STDIN, STDOUT, STDERR, Redirections, and Wildcards


By default, UNIX commands read from standard input (STDIN) and send their output to standard out (STDOUT).

You can redirect them by using the following commands:

<beginning-of-filename>*         # * is wildcard to specify many files
ls > file                        # prints ls output into specified file
command < my_file                # uses file after '<' as STDIN
command >> my_file               # appends output of one command to file
command | tee my_file            # writes STDOUT to file and prints it to screen
command > my_file; cat my_file   # writes STDOUT to file and prints it to screen
command > /dev/null              # turns off progress info of applications by redirecting
                                 # their output to /dev/null
grep my_pattern my_file | wc     # Pipes (|) output of 'grep' into 'wc'
grep my_pattern my_non_existing_file 2 > my_stderr # prints STDERR to file

Useful shell commands

cat <file1> <file2> > <cat.out>      # concatenate files in output file 'cat.out'
paste <file1> <file2> > <paste.out>  # merges lines of files and separates them by tabs (useful for tables)
cmp <file1> <file2>                  # tells you whether two files are identical
diff <fileA> <fileB>                 # finds differences between two files
head -<number> <file>                # prints first lines of a file
tail -<number> <file>                # prints last lines of a file
split -l <number> <file>             # splits lines of file into many smaller ones
csplit -f out fasta_batch "%^>%" "/^>/" "{*}" # splits fasta batch file into many files
                                     # at '>'
sort <file>                          # sorts single file, many files and can merge (-m)
                                     # them, -b ignores leading white space, ...
sort -k 2,2 -k 3,3n input_file > output_file # sorts in table column 2 alphabetically and
                                     # column 3 numerically, '-k' for column, '-n' for
                                     # numeric
sort input_file | uniq > output_file # uniq command removes duplicates and creates file/table
                                     # with unique lines/fields
join -1 1 -2 1 <table1> <table2>     # joins two tables based on specified column numbers
                                     # (-1 file1, 1: col1; -2: file2, col2). It assumes
                                     # that join fields are sorted. If that is not the case,
                                     # use the next command:
sort table1 > table1a; sort table2 > table2a; join -a 1 -t "$(echo -e '\t')" table1a table2a > table3                               # '-a <table>' prints all lines of specified table!
                                     # Default prints only all lines the two tables have in
                                     # common. '-t "$(echo -e '\t')" ->' forces join to
                                     # use tabs as field separator in its output. Default is
                                     # space(s)!!!
cat my_table | cut -d , -f1-3        # cut command prints only specified sections of a table,
                                     # -d specifies here comma as column separator (tab is
                                     # default), -f specifies column numbers.
grep                                 # see chapter 4
egrep                                # see chapter 4


Screen references

  1. Screen Turorial
  2. Screen Cheat Sheet

Starting a New Screen Session

screen                 # Start a new session
screen -S <some-name>  # Start a new session and gives it a name

Commands to Control Screen

Ctrl-a d #  Detach from the screen session
Ctrl-a c # Create a new window inside the screen session
Ctrl-a Space # Switch to the next window
Ctrl-a a # Switch to the window that you were previously on
Ctrl-a " # List all open windows. Double-quotes " are typed with the Shift key
Ctrl-d or type exit # Exit out of the current window. Exiting form the last window will end the screen session
Ctrl-a [ # Enters the scrolling mode. Use Page Up and Page Down keys to scroll through the window. Hit the Enter key twice to return to normal mode. 

Attaching to Screen Sessions

From any computer, you can attach to a screen session after SSH-ing into a server.

screen -r              # Attaches to an existing session, if there is only one
screen -r              # Lists available sessions and their names, if there are more then one session running
screen -r <some-name>  # Attaches to a specific session
screen -r <first-few-letters-of-name> # Type just the first few letters of the name
                       # and you will be attached to the session you need

Destroying Screen Sessions

  1. Terminate all programs that are running in the screen session. The standard way to do that is: Ctrl-c
  2. Exit out of your shell: exit
  3. Repeat steps 1 and 2 until you see the message: [screen is terminating]

There may be programs running in different windows of the same screen session. That’s why you may need to terminate programs and exit shells multiple time.

Tabs and a Reasonably Large History Buffer

For a better experience with screen, run

cp ~/.screenrc ~/.screenrc.backup 2> /dev/null
echo 'startup_message off
defscrollback 10240
caption always "%{=b dy}{ %{= dm}%H %{=b dy}}%={ %?%{= dc}%-Lw%?%{+b dy}(%{-b r}%n:%t%{+b dy})%?(%u)%?%{-dc}%?%{= dc}%+Lw%? %{=b dy}}"
' > ~/.screenrc

Simple One-Liner Shell Scripts

Web page for script download.

Renames many files *.old to *.new. To test things first, replace ‘do mv’ with ‘do echo mv’:

for i in *.input; do mv $i ${i/\.old/\.new}; done
for i in *\ *; do mv "$i" "${i// /_}"; done # Replaces spaces in files by underscores

Run an application in loops on many input files:

for i in *.input; do ./application $i; done

Run fastacmd from BLAST program in loops on many *.input files and create corresponding *.out files:

for i in *.input; do fastacmd -d /data/../database_name -i $i > $i.out; done

Run SAM’s target99 on many input files:

for i in *.pep; do target99 -db /usr/../database_name -seed $i -out $i; done
Search in many files for a pattern and print occurrences together with file names.
for j in 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9; do grep -iH <my_pattern> *$j.seq; done

Example of how to run an interactive application (tmpred) that asks for file name input/output:

for i in *.pep; do echo -e "$i\n\n17\n33\n\n\n" | ./tmpred $i > $i.out; done

Run BLAST2 for all .fasa1/.fasta2 file pairs in the order specified by file names and write results into one file:

for i in *.fasta1; do blast2 -p blastp -i $i -j ${i/_*fasta1/_*fasta2} >> my_out_file; done
This example uses two variables in a for loop. The content of the second variable gets specified in each loop by a replace function.

Runs BLAST2 in all-against-all mode and writes results into one file (‘-F F’ turns low-complexity filter off):

for i in *.fasta; do for j in *.fasta; do blast2 -p blastp -F F -i $i -j $j >> my_out_file; done; done;

How to write a real shell script

  1. Create file which contains an interpreter as the first line:

  2. Place shell commands in file below the interpreter line using a text editor.
  3. Make file executable:

    chmod +x my_shell_script
  4. Run shell script like this:

  5. Place it into your /rhome//bin directory

    mkdir -p ~/bin
    mv my_shell_script ~/bin/
  6. Add the bin path to your shell permanently:

    echo 'export PATH=~/bin:$PATH' >> ~/.bashrc
    source ~/.bashrc

Simple One-Liner Perl Scripts

Small collection of useful one-liners:

perl -p -i -w -e 's/pattern1/pattern2/g' my_input_file
            # Replaces a pattern in a file by a another pattern using regular expressions.
            # $1 or \1: back-references to pattern placed in parentheses
            # -p: lets perl know to write program
            # -i.bak: creates backup file *.bak, only -i doesn't
            # -w: turns on warnings
            # -e: executable code follows

*Parse lines based on patterns:*

perl -ne 'print if (/my_pattern1/ ? ($c=1) : (--$c > 0)); print if (/my_pattern2/ ? ($d = 1) : (--$d > 0))' my_infile > my_outfile
            # Parses lines that contain pattern1 and pattern2.
            # The following lines after the pattern can be specified in '$c=1' and '$d=1'.
            # For logical OR use this syntax: '/(pattern1|pattern2)/'.

Remote Copy: wget, scp, ncftp


Use wget to download a file from the web:

wget ftp://ftp.ncbi.nih.... # file download from www; add option '-r' to download entire directories


Use scp to copy files between machines (ie. laptop to server):

scp source target # Use form 'userid@machine_name' if your local and remote user ids are different.
                  # If they are the same you can use only 'machine_name'.

Here are more scp examples:

scp user@remote_host:file.name . # Copies file from server to local machine (type from local
                                 # machine prompt). The '.' copies to pwd, you can specify                                              # here any directory, use wildcards to copy many files.

scp file.name user@remote_host:~/dir/newfile.name
                                                                       # Copies file from local machine to server.
scp -r user@remote_host:directory/ ~/dir
                                 # Copies entire directory from server to local machine.

Nice FTP

From the linux command line run ncftp and use it to get files:

ncftp> open ftp.ncbi.nih.gov
ncftp> cd /blast/executables
ncftp> get blast.linux.tar.Z (skip extension: @)
ncftp> bye

Archiving and Compressing

Creating Archives

tar -cvf my_file.tar mydir/    # Builds tar archive of files or directories. For directories, execute command in parent directory. Don't use absolute path.    
tar -czvf my_file.tgz mydir/   # Builds tar archive with compression of files or directories. For
                               # directories, execute command in parent directory. Don't use absolute path.
zip -r mydir.zip mydir/        # Command to archive a directory (here mydir) with zip.
tar -jcvf mydir.tar.bz2 mydir/ # Creates *.tar.bz2 archive

Viewing Archives

tar -tvf my_file.tar
tar -tzvf my_file.tgz

Extracting Archives

tar -xvf my_file.tar
tar -xzvf my_file.tgz
gunzip my_file.tar.gz # or unzip my_file.zip, uncompress my_file.Z,
                      # or bunzip2 for file.tar.bz2
find -name '*.zip' | xargs -n 1 unzip # this command usually works for unzipping
                      # many files that were compressed under Windows
tar -jxvf mydir.tar.bz2 # Extracts *.tar.bz2 archive

Try also:

tar zxf blast.linux.tar.Z
tar xvzf file.tgz

Important options:

f: use archive file
p: preserve permissions
v: list files processed
x: exclude files listed in FILE
z: filter the archive through gzip 

Simple Installs

Systems-wide installations

Applications in user accounts

Installation of RPMs

Environment Variables

xhost user@host                # adds X permissions for user on server.
echo $DISPLAY                  # shows current display settings
export DISPLAY=<local_IP>:0    # change environment variable
unsetenv DISPLAY               # removes display variable
env                            # prints all environment variables

List of directories that the shell will search when you type a command:

echo $PATH

You can edit your default DISPLAY setting for your account by adding it to file .bash_profile


Exercise 1

  1. Download proteome of Halobacterium spec. with wget and look at it:

    module load ncbi-blast/2.2.26 # Loads legacy blastall
    wget ftp://ftp.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/genomes/genbank/archaea/Halobacterium_salinarum/representative/GCA_000069025.1_ASM6902v1/GCA_000069025.1_ASM6902v1_protein.faa.gz
    gunzip GCA_000069025.1_ASM6902v1_protein.faa.gz
    mv GCA_000069025.1_ASM6902v1_protein.faa AE004437.faa
    less AE004437.faa  # press q to quit
  2. Simple Analysis:

    a. How many predicted proteins are there?

    grep '^>' AE004437.faa --count

    b. How many proteins contain the pattern “WxHxxH” or “WxHxxHH”?

    egrep 'W.H..H{1,2}' AE004437.faa --count

    c. Use the find function (/) in ‘less’ to fish out the protein IDs containing the pattern or more elegantly do it with awk:

    awk --posix -v RS='>' '/W.H..(H){1,2}/ { print ">" $0;}' AE004437.faa | less # press q to quit
  3. Create a BLASTable database with formatdb:

    ls # before
    formatdb -i AE004437.faa -p T -o T
    ls # after
    '-p F' for nucleotide and '-p T' for protein database; '-o T' parse SeqId and create indexes 
  4. Generate myseq.fasta

    a. Generate list of sequence IDs for the above pattern match result (i.e. retrieve my_IDs from step 2c). Alternatively, download the pre-generated file with wget.

    b. Retrieve the corresponding sequences for these IDs with the fastacmd command from the blastable database:

    wget http://biocluster.ucr.edu/~tgirke/Documents/UNIX/my_IDs
    fastacmd -d AE004437.faa -i my_IDs > myseq.fasta
    less myseq.fasta # press q to quit
  5. (Optional) Looking at several different patterns:

    a. Generate several lists of sequence IDs from various pattern match results (i.e. retrieve a.my_ids, b.my_ids, and c.my_ids from step 2c).

    b. Retrieve the sequences in one step using the fastacmd in a for-loop:

    for i in *.my_ids; do fastacmd -d AE004437.faa -i $i > $i.fasta; done
  6. Run blastall with a few proteins in myseq.fasta against your newly created Halobacterium proteome database.

    Create first a complete blast output file including alignments. In a second step use the ‘m -8’ option to obtain a tabular output (i.e. tab separated values):

    blastall -p blastp -i myseq.fasta -d AE004437.faa -o blastp.out -e 1e-6 -v 10 -b 10
    blastall -p blastp -i myseq.fasta -d AE004437.faa -m 8 -e 1e-6 > blastp.tab
    less blastp.out # press q to quit
    less -S blastp.tab # -S disables line wrapping, press q to quit

    The filed descriptions of the Blast tabular output (from the “-m 8” option) are available here:

    1  Query (The query sequence id)
    2  Subject (The matching subject sequence id)
    3  % id
    4  alignment length
    5  mismatches
    6  gap openings
    7  q.start
    8  q.end
    9  s.start
    10 s.end
    11 e-value
    12 bit score

Is your blastp.out file equivalent to this one?

  1. Parse blastall output into Excel spread sheet

    a. Using biocore parser

    blastParse -i blastp.out -o blast.xls -c 5

    b. Using BioPerl parser

    bioblastParse.pl blastp.out > blastparse.txt     

Exercise 2

Split sample fasta batch file with csplit (use sequence file myseq.fasta from Exercise 1).

csplit -z myseq.fasta '/>/' '{*}'

Delete some of the files generated by csplit Concatenate single fasta files from (step 1) into to one file with cat (e.g. cat file1 file2 file3 > bigfile). BLAST two related sequences, retrieve the result in tabular format and use comm to identify common hit IDs in the two tables.

Exercise 3

Run HMMPFAM search with proteins from Exercise 1 against Pfam database (will take ~3 minutes)

hmmscan -E 0.1 --acc /srv/projects/db/pfam/2011-12-09-Pfam26.0/Pfam-A.hmm myseq.fasta > output.pfam

Easier to parse/process tabular output

hmmscan -E 0.1 --acc --tblout output.pfam /srv/projects/db/pfam/2011-12-09-Pfam26.0/Pfam-A.hmm myseq.fasta # also try --domtblout

Which query got the most hits? How many hits were found that query?

Exercise 4

Create multiple alignment with ClustalW (e.g. use sequences with ‘W.H..HH’ pattern)

clustalw myseq.fasta
mv myseq.aln myalign.aln

Exercise 5

Reformat alignment into PHYILIP format using ‘seqret’ from EMBOSS

seqret clustal::myalign.aln phylip::myalign.phylip

Exercise 6

Create neighbor-joining tree with PHYLIP

cp myalign.phylip infile
protdist     # creates distance matrix (you may need to press 'R' and then 'Y')
cp outfile infile
neighbor     # use default settings (press 'Y')
cp outtree intree

retree # displays tree and can use midpoint method for defining root of tree, my typical command sequence is: ‘N’ (until you see PHYLIP) ‘Y’ ‘M’ ‘W’ ‘R’ ‘R’ ‘X’

cp outtree tree.dnd

View your tree in TreeBrowse or open it in TreeView