Syntax and Notes
- Remember the UNIX/Linux command line is case sensitive!
- The hash (pound) sign
#indicates end of a command and the start of a comment.
- The notation
<...>refers to variables and file names that need to be specified by the user. The symbols
>need to be excluded.
No need to memorize all of these commands, by using these commands you will naturally memorize the most frequently used.
- When specifying file names:
.(dot) refers to the present working directory
~(tilde) refers to user’s home directory
Navigation and Exploration
pwd # "Print working directory"; show your current path ls # "List" contents of current directory ls -l # Similar to ls, but provides additional info on files and directories ls -a # List all files, including hidden files (.name) as well ls -R # Lists subdirectories recursively ls -t # Lists files in chronological order cd <dir_name> # "Change directory" to specified path cd # Brings you to your home directory cd ~ # Also bring you to your home directory cd .. # Moves one directory up cd ../../ # Moves two directories up (and so on) cd - # Go back to you were previously (before the last directory change)
file <file-name> # Show type of file (text, binary, compressed, etc...) id # Shows your user name and associated groups hostname # Shows the name of the machine your shell is currently on
Files and Directories
mkdir <dir_name> # Creates specified directory rmdir <dir_name> # Removes empty directory rm <file_name> # Removes file_name rm -r <dir_name> # Removes directory including its contents, but asks for confirmation rm -rf <dir_name> # Same as above, but turns confirmation off. Use with caution cp <name> <path> # Copy file/directory as specified in path (-r to include content in directories) mv <name1> <name2> # Renames directories or files mv <name> <path> # Moves file/directory as specified in path
Copy and paste
The methods to copy and paste on the command line differ depending on your operating systems (ie. Mac OSX, MS Windows, Linux) and your SSH application (ie. Terminal, MobaXTerm).
- Linux (xterm)
# Copy CTRL+SHIFT+C # Paste CTRL+SHIFT+V
- MS Windows (MobaXTerm)
# Copy by highlighting with mouse # Paste SHIFT+INSERT
- Mac OSX (Terminal)
# Copy COMMAND+c # Paste COMMAND+v
# Up arrow key scrolls backwards through command history
# Down arrow key scrolls forwards through command history
history # Shows all commands you have used recently
The tab (⇥) key auto completes commands or file names if there is only one option. Hitting the tab (⇥) key twice will list multiple options. Keep in mind that there are no spaces between the tab (⇥) keys and the partial names of commands or files.
Show all directories under my home that I can
Show all files that I can
ls with names that start with “myfile”:
Show all commands that I can run with names that start with “sp”:
Ctrl+a # Cursor to beginning of command line Ctrl+e # Cursor to end of command line Ctrl+w # Cut last word Ctrl+k # Cut to the end of the line Ctrl+y # Paste ("yank") content that was cut earlier (by Ctrl-w or Ctrl-k)
Other Useful Unix Commands
df -h /scratch # Show local disk space for /scratch, do not use for /rhome or /bigdata free -h # Show memory of current machine bc # Command-line calculator (to exit type 'quit') wget <URL> # Download a file or directory from the web ln -s <FILENAME1> <FILENAME2> # Creates symbolic link (shortcut, or alias) for file or directory du -sh . # Shows size of current directory du -sh <FILENAME> # Shows size of individual file du -s * | sort -nr # Shows size of each file within current directory, sorted by size
Not all command have help documentation available, however one of these methods will likely work:
help <COMMAND> # Show help for a Bash command man <COMMAND> # Show the manual page for a program (press the 'q' key to exit) <COMMAND> --help # Show help documentation for command <COMMAND> -h # Show help documentation for command
Online help: Google is your friend.
Universally available Linux commands, with detailed examples and explanations: https://www.linuxconfig.org/linux-commands